Wear of camshaft lobes and hydraulic lifters. Lifter wear through casing no longer holding oil to keep adjustment correct. Engine loses power and makes various noises.
Most blame incorrect specification and this is part true,however extended longlife oil servicing,poor hardening of surfaces and the design of reduced lobe width are the most damaging factors.
Any pd engine, however doesn’t seem to affect the 16v versions due to higher contact area of valve lobes, roller rockers & two camshafts.
Four cylinder 8v engines prone but 5 cylinder 20v most likely due to extra cam lobe (20% more lobes)
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